SISTEMI DI TRATTAMENTO REFLUI PER L'ABBATTIMENTO DELL'AZOTO
Also considering the recommendations included in the community norms, the proper use of the dejections from farm sites represe
nts the guarantee for the maintenance of a correct relation farm-environment.
Obviously, the dejections can represent a convenient addition to the cultivations, especially those of agrarian interest, but if they are added to the soils in too great quantities, they can cause problems to the surface and deep waters.
The Nitrogen Directive n. 91/676/CEE approved in December 1991 just to avoid this kind of consequences.
The directive offers indications to the state members for the determination of the real or potential pollution of the surface and deep waters, and for the individuation of areas in which the grounds are already damaged or at risk.
As Italy did not integrated the nitrate directive in time, the European Commission has issued in the first months of year 2006 an infringement procedure.
In 2006 with the Decree of the Ministry of Agricultural and Forestals Policies 7 April 2006 n. 209, has introduced the principles and the general technical norms for the regional regulation about the agricultural use of the breedings' dejections as per art. 38 of the law 11 maggio 1999, n. 152. According to this law, the regions must issue their own regulations for the management of the zootechnic dejections and, therefore, of the nitrogen loadings.
Lombardia region has issued the deliberation of the Regional Council n. 3439 released on 16/11/2006 in which it integrates, without increases, the national indications and it formulates an Action Plan for the farms located in vulnerable areas.
Anyway, on the operative aspect, these are the problems occuring:
- Little availability of soils for the distribution of zootechnic dejections
- Necessity of much time for the realization of the farm's and consortive's plants for the nitrogen reduction
- High costs for the technical and administrative management of the farm's dejections
The results lead to the consideration that the treatments on liquid dejections can concur to the mainteinance and the recover of a proper relation between farming and environement. The separation solid-liquid is a technique that should be adopted among the farming practices, as it permits to get two fractions, a clarified fraction and a concentrate fraction.
Also the aerobic treatment are useful, especially in farms where there are problems of odours emissions during the liquid manure storage and the distribution and where it is necessary to reduce the nitrogen in the liquid manure.
Further, it is necessary to provide to the producers and the technicians the specific basic knowledges, as well as all the technical operative references, in order to avoid for the breeder any possible default of the current regulations and to avoid always increasing disposal costs.