Glossary

Single buyer (SB)

Single buyer is the spa company - GSE Spa, which is entrusted by law as a guarantor for the
supply of electricity to households and small businesses, with competitive prices and in a
seamless manner, safety and efficiency of the service.
The task of the Single Buyer is to purchase elecricity according with the most favorable condition of the market and selling it to distributors or retail business for the supply to small customers who do not buy on the open market.
From 1° July 2007, with the full opening of the electricity market, Single Buyer, buys electricity for
customers needs in the market protected, domestic consumers and small businesses (connected at low voltage, with less than 50 employees and an annual turnover not exceeding 10 million euro), which have not chosen a new supplier in the free market.

High voltage (HV)
Rated voltage of the electrical phases above 35 kV and less than or equal to 150 kV.


Extra high voltage (EHV)
Rated voltage of the electrical phases greater than 150 kV.


Building energy performance certificate
Document prepared by accredited in accordance with the law,certifying the energy performance of the building or the
annual amount of primary energy required to meet the different needs associated with a standardized use of the building.
This document contains information about the energy efficiency of the building, the current values in accordance with the law, and is accompanied by suggestions about the most significant and cost-effective for the improvement of the energy performance of the building.


Authority for Electricity and Gas (AEEG)
Independent regulatory authority which is entrusted with the task of ensuring the promotion of competition and efficiency in the electricity and gas sector, established under the Law of 14 November 1995. 481.


Low Voltage (LV)
Rated voltage of the electrical phases equal or less than 1 kV.


Power Exchange
Virtual place where the encounter between supply and demand for the sale of wholesale electricity. The economic
management of the bag is entrusted to the GME pursuant to art. 5 of the Decree. 79/99.

Photovoltaic section
Set of photovoltaic modules electrically connected to each other and mechanically installed in their place of operation.


Photovoltaic cell
The basic element of the PV system consists of semiconductor material properly treated, which converts solar radiation into electricity.


Kilowatt (kW)
Multiple of the measurement unit of power equal to 1,000 watts.


Kilowatt-hours (kWh)
Units of energy supply. A kilowatt-hour is the energy used in one hour by a device from 1 kW.


Customer suitable, customer free
Natural or legal person who is able to supply contracts with some supplier who can choose (manufacturer, distributor,
wholesaler). From 1 July 2007 all customers are eligible and can buy power directly to the stock exchange or from a
wholesaler.


Feed-in tariff
Feed-in tariff is an incentive mechanism that rewards the electricity produced by a plant for a number of years. While the term "incentive capital" means the provision of assistance for the investment required for the construction of a implant.


Bilateral contract
Supply contract of electricity concluded outside the power exchange between an individual producer/wholesaler and an eligible customer. The delivery price and injection and withdrawal profiles are defined freely by the parties, however
injection and withdrawal schedules should be communicated to Terna Spa in order to check the compatibility with the
transmission constraints of the national transmission grid.


Photovoltaic conversion
Fenomeno per il quale la luce incidente su un dispositivo elettronico a stato solido (cella fotovoltaica) genera energia elettrica.


CC/CA converter, inverter
Static electrical device that converts direct current into alternating current.


Power
Flow of electrical charges in a conductor between two points having a potential difference (voltage). It is measured in A
(amperes).


Dispatching
It's the task for providing instructions for the usage and operation of coordinated production systems, of transmission
network and additional services for the balance between injections and withdrawals of electricity.


Distributor 
It's a network operator, owner of the distribution concession.


Conversion efficiency of a photovoltaic device
Relationship between electricity and solar energy collected by the photovoltaic device.


Thin Foil
It's the product of the technology that exploits the deposition of a thin layer of semiconductor materials for the
construction of the photovoltaic cell.


Energy Markets Operator (GME)
È la società per azioni costituita dal GSE alla quale è affidata la gestione economica dei mercati energetici secondo criteri di trasparenza e obbiettività, al fine di promuovere la concorrenza tra i produttori assicurando la disponibilità di un adeguato livello di riserva di potenza. Al GME è affidato inoltre la contrattazione dei Certificati Verdi e dei titoli di efficienza energetica (“Certificati Bianchi”).


Electricity network
It's the natural or legal person responsible, even not having the ownership, management of an electrical network with the obligation to connect third parties, as well as the maintenance and development of the same.


Wholesaler
Natural or legal person who buys and sells electricity without putting the production, transmission and distribution in
European Union countries.


Photovoltaic implant
System consisting of photovoltaic modules and other components designed to produce electricity from solar radiation.


Photovoltaic device connected to the network
Photovoltaic system connected to the electricity distribution.


Photovoltaic isolated implant
Photovoltaic implant not connected to the electricity network.


Indice di prestazione energetica EP di un edificio
It expresses the total primary energy consumption of the building referred to the unit of surface area or gross volume.
The indices of the energy performance of EP partial express instead the primary energy consumption related to
individual energy usage of the building (winter heating or summer cooling or hot water for sanitary or artificial lighting).


Radiation
Instantaneous solar radiation (and therefore power) incident on the surface. It is measured in kW / m². The radiation
detected at the equator, at noon and in optimum atmospheric conditions, is approximately 1,000 W / m².

Medium Voltage (MV)
È una tensione nominale tra le fasi superiore a 1 kV e uguale o inferiore a 35 kV.

Electricity market
WE consider the day-ahead energy market, the intraday one and the market for additional services.

Electricity measurement
This is the measure to obtaining measures of electrical energy in a release point, in a withdrawal point or in a
interconnection point.

PV Module
Set of photovoltaic cells connected together in series or parallel, in order to obtain voltage values and current suitable for common uses, such as the charge of a battery. In the module, the cells are protected from the elements by a glass on the front side and by insulating materials and plastic on the rear side.

Maximum power (Wp)
This is the maximum power of a photovoltaic device in standard operating conditions (irradiance 1000 W / m² and
temperature 25 ° C).

Rated power
The rated power (or maximum, or peak, or plate) of the PV system, is the electric power system determined by the sum of the individual power ratings of each photovoltaic module that is part of the same system, measured under conditions (radiation 1000 W / m² and temperature 25 ° C).

Potenziamento dell’impianto fotovoltaico
Strengthening is the technological intervention that run on a system put into operation at least two years, consisting of
an increase of the rated power of the system by the addition of photovoltaic modules whose total output is not less than 1kW.

Point of network connection
Border point between the grid and the customer's plant.

Solar radiation
Electromagnetic energy that is emitted by the sun as a result of nuclear fusion processes that take place in it. Solar
radiation (or energy) to the ground is measured in kWh / m².

National transmission Grid (RTN)
It is the set of lines of a network used to transport electricity from the production centers to the areas of distribution and
consumption as identified by the Decree of Minister of Industry on 25 June 1999 and subsequent amendments and
additions.

Reconstruction of the PV system
It's the intervention performed on a system that works since 20 years at least and thet involves the replacement with new components of the PV modules and the inverter.

Semiconductors
Materials with electrical features intermediate between those of conductors and insulators such as silicon.

Silicon
Materiale semiconduttore usato come base per la costruzione della maggior parte delle celle fotovoltaiche commerciali.

Amorphous silicon
Type of silicon for photovoltaic cells that have atoms not linked together according to a uniform scheme.

Silicio cristallino
Type of crystalline structure of silicon (monocrystalline or polycristalline).

Responsible entity
The DM 19 February 2007 defines the person responsible for the operation of the system as the one who can request
and obtain the tariffs.


Subfield
Collegamento elettrico in parallelo di più stringhe. L’insieme dei sottocampi costituisce il campo fotovoltaico.


String
Set of modules or panels connected electrically in series to obtain the working voltage of the photovoltaic field.


Voltage 
Electric potential difference between two points of a conductor or a circuit. It is measured in volts (V).


AC Voltage
Voltage between two points of a circuit that varies over time with trend of sinusoidal type. This is the voltage peculiar of
some isolated system (railways, ships) and devices powered by batteries.


Terna Spa
It's the company responsible in Italy for transmission and dispatching of electricity on high or very high voltage around
the national country.


Volt (V)
Unit of voltage measurement existing between two points in an electric field.


Watt (W)
Measurement unit of electric power.

DEFINITIONS

Rated power of a photovoltaic system
It corresponds to the nominal power (or peak) of its photovoltaic generator, that is determined by the sum of the
individual electric power of the individual elecrtic power of each module constituting the photovoltaic generator,
measured in Standard Test Conditions (STC).

Electrical energy produced by a photovoltaic system:
It's the electric energy measured at the output of converting group of direct current into alternating current before it is
made available to electrical user cunsomers and/or put into the power grid.

Solar radiation:
solar power on a surface of unit area (W/mq).

Solar radiation:
integral radiation over a specific time (MJ / m or kWh / m² per hour, day, week, month, year, depending on the case)

Annual hours of use:
ratio between the electricity produced during the year and the rated power of the system.

GSE

IGSE S.p.a. is the holding company that, in Italy, supports the development of renewable energy sources with the
provision of incentives for the production of electricity and promotes sustainable development through awareness-raising about the efficient use of energy.
GSE is the sole shareholder of the Ministry of Economy and Finance, which shall exercise the shareholder rights
agreement with the Ministry of Economic Development.
The GSE is the parent company of subsidiaries AU (Single Buyer) and GME (GME).
GSE recently acquired 49% of the share capital of ERSE (formerly CESI Ricerca Spa), operating about the electricity
sector research.

Among the tasks entrusted to the company by law, the GSE:

- qualification implant fueled by renewable energy sources (RES);
- Emits green certificates for qualified implants and verification obligations of producers and importers;
- Release the Guarantee of Origin of electricity produced from renewable sources or cogeneration;
- Manages, as Topic actuator, the system of incentives for the production of electricity from photovoltaic and
thermodynamic concentration;
- Withdraw from the producers, the energy produced from renewable energy installations and similar (CIP 6);
- Withdraw the electricity sale from new renewable sources with power less than 1 MW, recognizing an all-inclusive tariff
incentive;
- Withdraw the energy produced by power plants below 10 MW fossil fuels and renewable sources (if any programmable
power) from manufacturers who require the service dedicated withdrawal;
- Manages the on-site exchange provided for renewable sources and cogeneration power up to 200kW;
- works on organized market for energy sale withdrawn by producers or acquired by the exchange on the spot;
- Gives information by: guidebooks, contact center, seminars, etc;
- Provide support to public administration for specialized services in energy world and works with Authority for Electricity and Gas for the performance of technical activities for assessment and checking of costs to be borne by customers.
The increasing interest of GSE for the promotion of renewable energy sources in the national context, moreover, led to
its recognition in the implementation of Italian energy policies as well as at international level, and through participation in seminars and workshops with the 'membership of international organizations.
At the moment, GSE, plays an active role in IEA (International Energy Agency), in (Observatoire Méditerranéen de
l'Energie) and in AIB (Association of Issuing Bodies). For the latter, GSE issues the RECS (Renewable Energy
Certificate System) applicable all round Europe.

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