Glossario

ELENCO DELLE ABBREVIAZIONI NORMALMENTE UTILIZZATE


Abb. Description
BAT Best Available Techniques
BOD5 Biological Oxygen Demand at 5 days
BT Low Tension
C Carbon
C/N Relation carbon and Nitrogen
Ca Calcium
CH4 Methane
CO2 Carbon Dioxide
COD Chemical Oxygen Demand
CSTR Completely Stirred Reactor
Cu Copper
D.lgs Legislative Decree
Del G.R. Resolution of the Regional Council
DM Ministerial Decree
DPCM Decree of the President of the Council of Ministers
DPR Decree of the President of the Italian Republic
ENEA Environment, New Technologies and Energy Authority
Fe Iron
GPL Gas of liquefied oil
GU Gazzetta Ufficiale (Official Journal)
H2O Water
H2S Hydrogen sulphide
H2SO4 Sulphuric acid
HCl Hydrochloric acid
HRT Hydraulic stability
K Potassium
L. Law
L.R. Regional Law
MICA Ministry of Industry, Trade and Handicraft
MTD Best Techniques Available
MW Mega Watt
N Nitrogen
n number
Nl Normal liters
N-NH4 Ammonia Nitrogen
N2 Basic Nitrogen
N2O Nitrous Oxyde
Na Sodium
NH3 Ammonia
NH4+ Ammonia Ion
O2 Oxygen
P Phosphor
PRG General Local Plan
PUA Plan of use in agriculture
PUAs Semplified plan of use in agriculture
pv Net weight
RSU Solid urban waste
SAU Agricultural soil used
SS o ST Dry matter
SST Total suspended solids
SSV Volatile sospende solids
SUA Usable farm surface
SV Solids volatiles
tq As such
TEP Tons equal to oil
UE European Union





LIST OF THE MEASUREMENT UNITS NORMALLY USED
The measurement units of the International system and their multiples and submultiples have been used where possible.


Physical dimension Name Symbol Relation with
fundamental unit
lenght meter
micron millimeter
centimeter kilometer
m
I* mm era
kmm
IO6 m IO'3 m IO'2 m IO3 m
surface square meter
hectometer
m1 ha IO4 m2
volum cubic meter milliliter liter m' mi 1 IO"6 m3 10 J mì
time second
minute hour
s min, h 6-10 s 3,610's
  day d  
  month mese  
  year anno  
Power Watt kilowatt ? megawatl
horsepower
-w
kW
MW
cv
103W
106W 735 W
Energy kiloJoule
Watt-hour
kJ
Wh
103J 3,6-103J
  kilowatt-hour kWh  
Force Newton N IO'3 kg 103kg
Pressure Atmosphere kiloPascal atm
kPa
3,6 • IO5 Cl,013-105Pa 103Pa
Massa kilogram milligram gram
ton
cg mg
g t
10* kg
IO'3 kg 103kg
Temperature Degree °C IO'3 kg 103kg
Difference of potential Degree V  
Electric charge Ampere-hour Ah 3,6 • IO5 C
Noise decibel dB{A)  






GLOSSARIO


Volatile fat acids
Organic acids with low molecular weight.
Aerobic
Process made by the action of aerobic microorganisms, that is, organisms using free oxygen.
Amendant
Material with high content of dry matter and rich in carbon, that is added to
muds, animal dejections or fractions of them, to improve their physicalchemical characteristics for the fertilization.
Ammonia/ammonium
Ammonium (NH4+) is a positive ion with nitrogen content, which forms in the soil from the biological degradation of the organic matter, or it is added as fertilizer. Usually it is absorbed on clayish minerals, but after various processes it can set free, lose the charge and release the ammonia (NH3), in a measure that depends on the type of soil and the climate. Being very volatile, ammonia passes in the air.
Anaerobic
Process made by anaerobic microorganisms, that live without oxygen. The anaerobic micro-organisms can be facultative or compulsory according to the possibilità to use also free oxygen when it is available.

Electric motor, which rotation speed is not exactly correspondent to the rotation speed of the magnetic fields created by the electric current in the stator. It includes a starting couple that allows the starting without any particular device. The starting often takes place with the delta-star switching, that allows the reduction of the peak's absorption.
Elementar nitrogen
It is the nitrogen form present as 78% in the terrestrial atmosphere; it is
usable by the plants only through microbic fixation.
Efficient nitrogen
It is the part of the total nitrogen brought with fertilization, useful for vegetable production and it can be found in the highest removals if compared to the non-fertilized crop. The efficiency of a fertilization is never equal to 100%, as part of the nitrogen can be lost through volatilization, through lixiviation, through denitrification, through surface runoff, or it can be immobilizer in the microbic biomass or residual.
Organic nitrogen
In the biosphere, and more specifically in the soil, nitrogen can be found
combined in the organic molecole or in form of mineral compounds, that can be used directly from the plants, as ions nitric and ammonium.
Biodegradability
Propriety of the organic and inorganic matters found in the effluents, for which they can be completely destroyed by the micro-organisms.
Biofilter
Device for the reduction of odours found in a flow of polpute air. It is
composed of a filtering bed of organic matter (peat, compost, barks or their
mixtures), through which is let the air to treat. On the filtering bed, is
progressively selected a microbic flora, that can mineralize the smelling
matters through its metabolism.
Biogas
Gaseous mixing mostly made by carbon (30-40%) and methane (60-70%),
produced during the processo f anaerobic digestion.
BOD5
Biochemical oxygen
demand at 5 days
It is the quantity of oxygen required for the oxydation of the biodegradable
organic substance found in a flow sample incubated for 5 days at 20°C,
through respiration of the micro-organisms found in the oxygen.
Biomass
It is the biodegradable part of the products, waste or leftovers from agricolture (including vegetable and animal matters) and from forestry and its related industries, as well as the biodegradable part of industrial and urban waste.
C/N
Relation between carbon and nitrogen in a matter. In general, it defines if the decomposition of a matter in the soil or in the compost's mass causes a nitrogen release or its immobilization. Approximately, a C/N higher than 30 means immobilization, while a C/N lower than 20 means the clear release of
nitrogen.
COD
Quantity of oxygen required for the oxydation (with hot K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4 for 2 hours) of mosto f the organic matter found in a sample of flow.
Cogenerator
Endothermic motor coupled with an eletric generator that can recover the
thermal energy produced during the running and that can use it for common or industrial aims.
Compost
It is a controller bio-oxydative process on a solid etherogeneous organic substrate; it evolves through a thermophil stage and takes to the production of water, carbon dioxide and stabilized organic matter.
Volatile organic
compounds(COV)
All the organic compounds different from methane, that, if released in the air, can stay there long enough to take part in photochemical reactions and therefore they cause photochemical pollution and increase of tropospherical ozone.
Denitrification
Transformation of the compounds in oxidated form (nitrate and nitrite) into
molecular nitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that release in the
atmosphere as gas, by heterotrophs micro-organisms (which uses the
organic matter as source of carbon). The process acts in anoxic space, that is without oxygen: in fact, on the contrary, as these micro-organisms are facoltative anaerobic, they use the free oxygen instead of the nitrate. It is one of the escapes of nitrogen from the system soil in the atmosphere.
Purification
Removal of the elements or compounds from a fluid. For the biodegradable flow sit can be made biologically, through the action of microorganisms that transforms part of the substrate into gaseous products and water, and they remove the rest through physical-biological mechanisms (protoplasmatic synthesis of new cells, bioflocculation, bioabsorption). In this way, part of the substrate is transformed into simple products that release in the air, a further part forms the rest of the process called mud, that can be separated through sedimentation.
Anaerobic digestion
It is a biological process used for the treatment of organic effluents, that
evolves through a first phase, in which the organic matter is transformed into simple compounds (volatile fat acids, aldheyds, alcohol) by facoltative
anaerobic bacteria, and through a second phase in which, starting from the volatile fat acids, thanks to the action of obligated anaerobic bacteria, the biogas is produced. The anaerobic digestion allows the stabilization of the treated organic matters. The devices in which the process takes place are called digestors.
Digestor
Reactor in which takes place the process of anaerobic digestion.
Dehydration
Reduction of the humidity contempt inside the agricultural's effluents or inside the fractions coming from their treatments (for instance, the purifying muds). It can be made mechanically, with centrifuges and pressbands, or thermically, by applying drying processes.
Breeding effluent
Animals' dejections or a mix of bedding and animals' dejections, even as
transformed product.
Nitrogenous emissions
in the air
Nitrogen losses from the soil to the air, they are originated by two processes: the volatilization of the ammonia (NH3) and denitrification, that, on the contrary, releases molecular nitrogen (N2) and nitrous oxide (N2O).
As far as the environment is concerned, they are very worrying as molecular nitrogen causes a wide fallout of mineral nitrogen on the soil and it seems to be also involved in the development of acid rains, while the nitrous oxide contributes to the formation of gas carbon.
Mud
Remains of the purifying process. It is composed of bacterial biomass and of organic and non-organic inert matter. The remain of the sedimentation processi s called primary mud.
Fertirrigation
It is the add of organic or mineral fertilizer to the water for the irrigation. As for the animals' liquid dejections, the distribution is commonly made through perfusion at low or high pressure and by fixed or mobile pipes. Some reasons for the concerns about this method of fertilization is for its low efficiency, for the dosing difficulties and the formation of aerosol.
Colloidal fraction
It is the quote of dry matter composed by particled material with a diameter between 1 millimicron and 1 micron.
Environmental impact
It reveals the negative consequences caused on the environment by a
productive system distinguished by the form of breeding, the cultivation's
technique, the use of synthesis substances, etc. Therefore, it indicates the level of sustainability o fan agricultural system.
Manure
Semi-solid effluent from breedings composed by a mixture of excrements,
urine, drinking losses, food leftovers and cellulose/wood materials, coming from farms using the bedding. If coming from the farm's activity, they are assimilated to manure:
- exhausted bedding from poultry/rabbit breedings;
- poultry/rabbit dejections made semi-liquid by dehidration processes both inside and outside the sheds;
- semi-solid fractions, to be used in agricolture, remaining from the treatment of agricultural effluents;
- liquids and/or materials like manure subject to compost in a mix with
cellulose/wood remains.
Slurry
Breeding liquid effluents, from a mixture of excrements, urine, food leftovers, drinking loss, waters from the dejections' vehiculation, bedding remains. It is considered as liquid if it comes from breeding's activity such:
- dripping liquids from semi-liquid materials in storage;
- dripping liquids from manure's stockpile ;
- rabbits' and poultry's dejections not mixed to the bedding;
- Liquid fractions to be used in agricolture, coming from the treatment of
agricultural effluents;
- waters from washing of industrial plants that deal with the transformation of animals' products;
- waters from washing of structures and equipments for animals;
- dripping liquids from insilates.
Semi-liquid material
Wastewater from breeding that can be piled up. It includes manures,
exhausted beddings, solid fractions separated from the liquids by a treatment of separation solid/liquid, as such or composted.
Maturation
In the compost processes, it means the phase of slow transformation of the organic matter, that follows the active phase and during which it starts the formation of humid composts.
Mesophile
Temperature interval between 30 and 45°C.
Heavy metals
Elements with specific weight higher than 5. Some of them have essentially a nutritive function and they are micronutrients. For example, copper and zincm are added to the ratio to satisfy the animals' needs, and that, mainly when they animals are young, are difficult to assimilate. however, as micronutrients, these elements are transformed into toxic substances when the concentrations overcome the threshold. Several norms impose limits to the addition of heavy metals in the soil, to avoid the risk of contamination of the food chain.
Best Available
Techniques
"Techniques" means both the technologies used in the process of production to prevent and reduce pollution, both the way to manage the plants. As far as breeding is concerned, the elements that influence the level of emission in the air are the type of structure (type of pavement, type of ventilation), and the type of management such as animals' density, frequency of emptying of the slurry' s collection pits, type of immission in the storage tanks, etc.
"Available" means the techniques that have overpassed the sperimentation stage and that can be inserted in the production process. Another conditions for the availability of a technique is that it can be applied in economically convenient conditions, evaluating the costs and benefits, and so the farm's income.
Nitrate
Nitrogen form generated by the nitrification process. Nitrate is the chemical form best absorbed by the most of the cultivation plant, so it causes a ready fertilizing effect. As it is a mobile ion, not kept in the soil by absorption, on the contrary it is a reason of concern for the environment, as if it is present in high quantities, it can runoff with the dripping water and reach the ground water. The concentration's limit of nitrates in the ground waters for drinking use is fixed at 50 mg/l.
Nitrification
Process acted by aerobic micro-organisms, by which nitrose passes from ammonium form (NH3) to the nitrous form (NO2)- and then in the nitric one (NO3-).
Nitrite
Combination form of nitrogen which presence in the soil, linked to the microbic activities, is labile; the nitrous ion is instable and it quickly modifies in other forms (nitrate, nitrous oxide, elementar nitrogen).
Landscape
In a geographical meaning, as the part of territory defined by a characteristic combination of eco system.
Percolation
Descending movement of excess water compared to the soil's capacity, that overpasses the useful depth for the radical absorption and it is addressed to the refilling of the ground water, as it can generate the lixiviation of the nutrients.
Specific Weight
Relation between the weight of a body and its volume
pH
Concentration of the hydrogenions (H+) in the liquid stage of soil, and therefore it indirectly indicates the level of basic saturation of the exchange's complex
Polielectrolytes
Organic polymers with ionic groups, used alone or with other coagulants such as lime or iron chloride as conditioners to obtain the separation of the solids. They allow the aggregation and the destabilization of the colloidal fractions of the liquids or muds.
Poultry manure
Dejections produced in poultry breeding.
Settled power
Electric power shown on the plate of a user.
Nitrous oxide
Nitric oxide with chemical formula N2O. It is a colourless gas, with little solubility in water, it can be generated both during nitrification and denitrification; considered as one of the compounds responsible (for little less than 10%) for greenhouse effect, that is the phenomenon by which the heat coming from the earth is absorbed in the atmosphere and damages the
ozone layer.
Thermal yield
Defined as the thermal energy recovered for each energy unit immette in the motor or in the machine as fuel.
Liquids recirculation
Cleaning technique for the slurry pits under rimated floor; it takes the clarified and stabilized slurry from the storage and pumps it up to one end of the pit in order to help the deflection of the fresh dejections collected in the pit.
Nitrate risk
Short term that indicates the environmental risks caused by an excess of
nitrates in the agricultural system, expecially lixiviation towards the ground
water or surface runoff.
Sequencing Batch
Reactors
(SBR)
Series (generally 2) of active muds reactors batch type set in alternate
sequence of feeding. The system must operate so that in 24 hours all the
cycles of feeding, reaction, sedimentation and draining are completed, and all
the capacity is treated, including the charge's and concentration's peaks.
The processes of hydraulic balance, carbon oxydation, nitrification,
denitrification, biological or chemical removal of phosphor are made in
predefinite time sequence. The characteristic that differs this type of
installation from the conventional one is that the SBR reactor makes over
time what a system of active muds makes in the several tanks it includes.
Heat exchanger
Device for the heat transfer from a fluid (liquid or aerial) to another.
Biological scrubber
DOperation by which the sospended solids in the slurry are let settle on the bottom of a container, thanks to the gravity.
Sedimentation
Operation by which the sospended solids in the slurry are let settle on the bottom of a container, thanks to the gravity.
Separation solid/liquid
Treatment technique of the animals' dejections, consisting in the more or less pressed separation of the sospended solids. Different separation efficiencies are obtained according to the technology used, and therefore the solids will have different volumes, with variable characteristics. So it is possible to require further treatments for their full exploitation in agricolture (drying, composting).
Synchronous, motor
Electric motor which rotation speed is equal to the speed rotation of the
magnetic fields created by the current in the stator. It is characterized by the fact that within a wide interval of the charge change the number of turns is strictly constant, it depends on the frequency of the alternate (50 Hz) and on the number of poles that make the rotor.
Filtering solids
They represent the amount of dry matter in the solution. They are analitically determined by the filtration of a given volume of waste through a filter of 0.45 micron and the determination of the dry matter in the waste that passes through the filter. They include a colloidal fraction and a dissolved fraction.
Suspended solids
They represent the amound of the dry matter not in the solution. They are analitically determined by the filtration of a given volume of waste through a filter of 0.45 micron and the determination of the dry matter in the waste that passes through the filter. It is also possible to determine them by centrifugation of the slurry such as, at 3000 and resulting from the dry matter that floats during the centrifugation; from this last data, it is possible to determine the dry matter as a difference with the total amount of dry matter. The suspended solids, as well, contain a sedimentable fraction, made of the dry matter that deposits in a cone (called Imhoff) for a period of 60 minutes, that represents about the amount that can be removed by sedimentation.
Volatile sospended
solids
Organic fraction of the total sospended solids, that is the solids hold in a filter with 0.45 micron holes. They represent a fraction of the dry matter which is mostly made by organic substance; they are analitically determined as burning loss, that is the difference between the dry matter and the stable residue (ashes). Organic fraction of solids in the solution, that is the solids filtering through a 0.45 micron filter. The dry matter after the drying. In the animals' waste it is analitically determined by drying in a stove at 150°C up to the constant weight.
Stabilization
Process that involves the reduction of the organic matter easily degradable and the humidification. It allows the reach of two main aims: significantly reduce the putrefaction process on the treated matter, decomposition processes of the dry matter, anaerobic in general, that cause the formation of nasty compounds; reduction of the patogen micro-organisms.
Floating
Clarified fraction of the slurry from the sedimentation process.
Retention time
Time of permanence inside a container of the material subjected to treatment.
Termophile
Temperature's range including values higher than 45°C.
Ammonia volatilization
Release of ammonia in the air, both from animals' sheds, from storage containers, and from soils on which animals' waste have been spread. In the latter case, the amount of the releases is exponentially proportional to the time between distribution and landfilling.
Vulnerable areas
Areas vulnerable to the pollution from nitrates of agricultural origines define
"soil areas that drain directly or indirectly nitrogenous compounds of agricultural or animal origin, in already contaminated waters, or waters that can be contaminated by such releases
it en ru ro